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Where are the women? A review and conceptual framework for addressing gender equity in charcoal value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

The importance of the charcoal sector is growing rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to providing an affordable energy source for residents in the continent's growing urban centers, the charcoal value chain offers a critical income source for millions of people. Despite recent studies suggesting that women are taking on an increasing role in charcoal value chains, data and analysis on the role of women and the influence of gendered power relations in the often male-coded charcoal value chain have remained limited. This literature review interrogates the gender dynamics of participation and benefits across charcoal value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa. We find significant support for women's participation throughout value chains, thereby contrasting conventional views of charcoal as a male activity. However, while dynamics change between different contexts, women's participation tends to be significantly higher in retail, while women tend to constitute a minority in other parts of the value chain – often joining the sector in the absence of alternative livelihood opportunities. The review also finds that gender differences exist across various nodes in terms of the scope, nature and outcomes of participation. While significant regional differences exist, our study finds that participation and outcomes tend to generally be influenced by gender differences and inequalities in: 1) access to and control over productive resources and income; 2) social and political capital, and; 3) gender roles and responsibilities. Importantly, other axes of social differentiation, such as generation, marital status, wealth and social class, often intersect with gender relations in influencing outcomes. In addition to structuring the extent, nature and outcomes of women and men's participation, we argue that gender roles and relations may significantly influence the efficiency and sustainability of the charcoal value chain. Based on our findings, we call for placing gender at the core – rather than periphery – of charcoal value chain studies, and propose a conceptual framework for incorporating gender analysis in future value chain studies in the charcoal sector.

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Ihalainen, M., Schure, J., and Sola, P.
Year:
2019

Gender-based violence and environment linkages: The violence of inequality

Abstract: 

Rooted in discriminatory gender norms and laws and shrouded in impunity, gender-based violence (GBV) occurs in all societies as a means of control, subjugation and exploitation that further reinforces gender inequality. This publication establishes that these patterns of gender-based abuse are observed across environmental contexts, affecting the security and well-being of nations, communities and individuals, and jeopardising meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs). While linkages between GBV and environmental issues are complex and multi-layered, these threats to human rights and healthy ecosystems are not insurmountable. This analysis reveals the complex and interlinking nature of GBV across three main contexts: access to and control of natural resources; environmental pressure and threats; and environmental action to defend and conserve ecosystems and resources. This publication aims to raise awareness and engage actors working in environmental and sustainable development, gender equality, and GBV policymaking and programming spheres to inform rights-based, gender-responsive approaches to environmental policy, programmes and projects. 

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
IUCN Global Programme on Governance and Rights (GPGR)
Year:
2020

Drivers of change in gender norms: An annotated bibliography

"This annotated bibliography highlights selected texts on drivers of change in gender norms.  It summarises some texts that outline recent thinking on social norms and that apply this analysis to understanding why inequitable gender norms persist and when they change.  The work concentrates on large-scale drivers of gender norm change, such as economic change, education, communications, legal change, social and political mobilisation and conflict, rather than on project-based experience."

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Marcus, R., Page, E., Calder, R., & Foley, C.
Year:
2014

Securing Land Rights for Women

Full citation: Daley, E. and Englert, B., "Securing Land Rights for Women" 4(1) JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES (2010).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries, Malawi, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda
Creator:
Daley, E. and Englert, B.
Year:
2010

Women’s Land Rights

Full citation: ActionAid International, "Women's Land Rights," ACTIONAID INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSION PAPER (March 2006).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
ActionAid International
Year:
2006

Cultivating Women’s Rights for Access to Land

Full citation: Hatcher, J., Meggiolaro, L. and Ferrer, C.S., "Cultivating Women's Rights for Access to Land," ACTIONAID AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD SECURITY NETWORK COUNTRY ANALYSIS REPORT (October 2005).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries, Vietnam, Burkina Faso, Afghanistan, Guatemala, Bangladesh, Malawi, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Uganda
Creator:
Hatcher, J., Meggiolaro, L. and Ferrer, C.S.
Year:
2005

A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia

Full citation: Agarwal, B. (1995). A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Agarwal, B.
Year:
1995

The gender implications of large-scale land deals

Full citation: Behrman, J., R. Meinzen-Dick, and A. Quisumbing. (2012). The gender implications of large-scale land deals. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(1): 49-79.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Behrman, J., R. Meinzen-Dick, and A. Quisumbing
Year:
2012

Land and Schooling: Transferring wealth across generations

Full citation: Quisumbing, A. R., Estudillo, J. P., & Otsuka, K. (2004). Land and Schooling: Transferring wealth across generations. Washington D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Quisumbing, A. R., Estudillo, J. P., & Otsuka, K.
Year:
2004

The Civil Law in Spain and Spanish America

Full citation: Walton, Clifford Stevens, 2003. The Civil Law in Spain and Spanish America.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Spain, Multiple Countries
Creator:
Walton, C. S.
Year:
2003