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Supporting an Engaged East African Civil Society to Enable Equitable Natural Resources Development

In 2017 and 2018, Resource Equity, with support from the Ford Foundation, explored the idea that civil society organizations in Eastern Africa are uniquely positioned and qualified to enter into collaborative partnerships with private sector actors, communities, and governments to bring about socially responsible investments in extractive resources and land. With a particular emphasis on women, the project was aimed at exploring and articulating the potential for beneficial collaborations between CSOs and the private sector, to identify challenges to such collaborations, and to propose possible solutions to these barriers. This situation summary (LINK) describes the project and the results.

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Uganda, Tanzania, Multiple Countries
Creator:
Resource Equity
Year:
2018

Sustainable Development Goals Report 2018

Summary of progress in the third year of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
United Nations
Year:
2018

Topic Guide: Land

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Mozambique, Rwanda
Creator:
Locke, A. and Henley, G.
Year:
2014

Transformative Leadership for Women's Rights

An Oxfam Guide: Understanding how leadership can create sustainable change that promotes women's rights and gender equality

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Oxfam
Year:
2014

Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Full citation: Farnworth, C., Sundell, M.F., Nzioki, A., Shivutse, V. and Davis, M., Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative (2013).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Farnworth, C., Sundell, M.F., Nzioki, A., Shivutse, V. and Davis, M.
Year:
2013

Understanding Gender Relations in the Land Discourse

Compiled and edited by Sunila Singh & Vidya Bhushan Rawat

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Bangladesh, Nepal, Multiple Countries, Indonesia, India, Cambodia
Creator:
International Land Coalition (ILC)
Year:
2019

UN Women: Changing Lives in Africa 2012

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ethiopia, Senegal, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Rwanda
Creator:
Multiple Contributing Authors
Year:
2012

Using the law for resource justice

iied Land acquisitions and rights | Law | Natural resource management > Legal tools for citizen empowerment Blog on 28 April 2015.

Collection Type:
News & Commentary
Country:
Multiple Countries, Liberia, Kenya, Cambodia
Creator:
Brinkhurst, M.
Year:
2015

Violence Against Women and Girls Resource Guide: Land Sector Brief

"This brief highlights the intersections between land programs/projects and violence against women and girls (VAWG) while providing recommendations for policy, institutional and community level interventions that may address VAWG or the underlying norms and attitudes that contribute to the use of violence against women.  We hope Task Teams take time to read this short brief, along with the resource guide introduction.  We hope to see more project related activities or components related to the prevention or response to VAWG within our land operations in the future and hope this resource give you a starting point for considering this development challenge affecting 1/3rd of women worldwide."

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG)
Year:
2019

Where are the women? A review and conceptual framework for addressing gender equity in charcoal value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

The importance of the charcoal sector is growing rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to providing an affordable energy source for residents in the continent's growing urban centers, the charcoal value chain offers a critical income source for millions of people. Despite recent studies suggesting that women are taking on an increasing role in charcoal value chains, data and analysis on the role of women and the influence of gendered power relations in the often male-coded charcoal value chain have remained limited. This literature review interrogates the gender dynamics of participation and benefits across charcoal value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa. We find significant support for women's participation throughout value chains, thereby contrasting conventional views of charcoal as a male activity. However, while dynamics change between different contexts, women's participation tends to be significantly higher in retail, while women tend to constitute a minority in other parts of the value chain – often joining the sector in the absence of alternative livelihood opportunities. The review also finds that gender differences exist across various nodes in terms of the scope, nature and outcomes of participation. While significant regional differences exist, our study finds that participation and outcomes tend to generally be influenced by gender differences and inequalities in: 1) access to and control over productive resources and income; 2) social and political capital, and; 3) gender roles and responsibilities. Importantly, other axes of social differentiation, such as generation, marital status, wealth and social class, often intersect with gender relations in influencing outcomes. In addition to structuring the extent, nature and outcomes of women and men's participation, we argue that gender roles and relations may significantly influence the efficiency and sustainability of the charcoal value chain. Based on our findings, we call for placing gender at the core – rather than periphery – of charcoal value chain studies, and propose a conceptual framework for incorporating gender analysis in future value chain studies in the charcoal sector.

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Ihalainen, M., Schure, J., and Sola, P.
Year:
2019

Who Benefits from Land Titling? Lessons Learned From Bolivia and Laos

Full Citation: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), “Who Benefits from Land Titling? Lessons Learned From Bolivia and Laos,” (2007).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Laos, Bolivia
Creator:
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Year:
2007

Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America

Full citation: Deere, C. D. and Leon, M., "Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America," 1(3) JOURNAL OF AGRARIAN CHANGE 440 (July 2001). - The main focus of state intervention in Latin American agriculture in the 1990s was on land-titling programs, designed to promote security of tenure and enliven land markets. A review of seven of these projects suggests that they were often designed without sufficient attention to civil codes and marital regimes that protect women's property rights. They often ignored that a household's endowment of land may consist of three forms of property: the wife's, the husband's, and jointly owned property. By assuming that the family farm is owned by the male household head, these projects trampled upon women's ownership rights. Nonetheless, the share of female beneficiaries of land-titling projects has been much higher than the share of women adjudicated land under the agrarian reforms of previous decades. This is partly because the primary way that women acquire land is through inheritance, and inheritance appears to be more gender equitable than other manners of acquiring land. It is also due to the impact of the more gender-equitable agrarian legislation of the current period, itself a product of the impact of women's movements on the state. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Deere, C. D. and Leon, M.
Year:
2001

Women and access to land and credit: discussions and key findings of the African Gender Development Index in Selected African Countries

Full citation: UNECA. (2007). “Women and access to land and credit: discussions and key findings of the African Gender Development Index in Selected African Countries,” June 2007, p.17. - In 2004, the African Centre for Gender and Social Development (ACGSD) launched AGDI, which provides a holistic perspective to gender (in)equality in Africa, consisting of three main areas: economic, social and political. This paper recommends that countries develop innovative strategies to address women’s equal access to land and credit directly and firmly in the economic policies. While countries have been active in developing gender policies, the approach does not have a long-term impact or maximum outreach if women’s access to resources is addressed in policies that target women only. Therefore, comprehensive mainstreaming strategies for inclusion of women need to be developed. In the case of land rights, despite the fact that much has been done already, women’s access to and control over land remains extremely low. This clearly indicates that the existing systems are not working to the full capacity or that they are not working at all. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
UNECA
Year:
2007

Women and Land: Securing Rights for Better Lives

Full citation: Budlender, D. and Alma, E., "Women and Land: Securing Rights for Better Lives," IDRC PAPERS (November 2011). - This book focuses on recent findings from sub Saharan Africa on women and land. It finds:
• Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about immediate benefits than other, more traditional research methods.
• Merely passing legislation is of little effect without the necessary resources for implementation, without informing and educating all relevant actors on the provisions of the legislation, without monitoring the reforms, and without effective sanctions on failure to implement.
• It is crucial both to consult and involve women when designing reforms and monitoring their implementation.
• Women’s access to land does not simply hinge on a choice between customary and statutory systems. Rather, we are faced with a more complex question of how the two systems interact and are used by different groups of women and men. The research also emphasizes the need to think about customary law as “living” and evolving.
• Addressing land injustices requires varied approaches that streamline and consolidate numerous land laws in a given country. It is vital to establish and maintain links among research, policy, practice, and people.
• The importance of providing teaching and training in a variety of disciplines for a young generation of women in Africa cannot be overstated.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Colombia, Pakistan, Malawi, Senegal, Cameroon
Creator:
Budlender, D. and Alma, E
Year:
2011

Women and Pastoralism

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Chakrabarti, S., Rota, A. and Sperandini, S.
Year:
2012

Women, Land and Sustainable Development

Full citation: Mehra, R., "Women, Land and Sustainable Development," 1 ICRW WORKING PAPER (1995).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Mehra, R.
Year:
1995

The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Guatemala, Bangladesh, Uganda
Creator:
Alkire, S., Meinzen-Dick, R., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A. R., Seymour, G. and Vaz, A.
Year:
2012

Women’s Land Rights

Full citation: ActionAid International, "Women's Land Rights," ACTIONAID INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSION PAPER (March 2006).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
ActionAid International
Year:
2006

Women’s land rights and gender justice in land governance: pillars in the promotion and protection of women’s human rights in rural areas

Full citation: International Land Coalition. (2013). “Women’s land rights and gender justice in land governance: pillars in the promotion and protection of women’s human rights in rural areas.” Synthesis of contributions by members, partners and individual experts in the International Land Coalition’s network to the e-consultation facilitated by GI-ESCR and IWRAW-AP. - While this document covers all categories of threats, the greatest emphasis is on “pervasive patriarchy, which creates legal, political and economic limitations to the advancement of women. Across the developing world, rural women suffer widespread gender-based discrimination in laws, customs and practices causing severe inequalities in their ability to access, control, own and use land and limiting their participation in decision-making at all levels of land governance. This synthesis of submissions resulting from a consultation, to which 19 members, partners and individual experts from the International Land Coalition’s network responded, highlights the threats to women’s legal and customary land rights. Contributors to the consultation emphasized the need to achieve de facto equality, the diversity of rural women and tenure, as well as the importance of women’s participation in land governance. The synthesis closes with specific recommendations to the CEDAW Committee to reaffirm women’s land rights as a fundamental human rights issue for rural women. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
International Land Coalition
Year:
2013

Women's Land Rights Toolkit

Information about 5 tools that have been successfully used by members of the International Land Coalition (ILC) to promote, protect and strengthen women’s land rights, intended to facilitate mutual learning based on good practices.

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
International Land Coalition (ILC)
Year:
2016

Women's Land Tenure Framework for Analysis: Inheritance

This framework is intended to help you assess the current situation for women’s land rights in a specific country, state, or community. This framework looks at a single question: Can women inherit land?

Collection Type:
Practice Guides
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Giovarelli, R and Scalise, E.
Years:
2015, 2013

Women's Land Tenure Framework for Analysis: Land Rights

This framework is intended to help you assess the current situation for women’s land rights in a specific country, state, or community. This framework looks at a single issue: Women’s rights to property

Collection Type:
Practice Guides
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Giovarelli, R and Scalise, E.
Years:
2015, 2013

Women's Land Tenure Security: A Conceptual Framework

Full citation: Doss, C., & R. Meinzen-Dick. (2018). Women’s Land Tenure Security: A Conceptual Framework. Seattle, WA: Research Consortium.

Collection Type:
Legal Research Resources
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Doss, C., & R. Meinzen-Dick
Year:
2018

Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time

Full citation: Steinzor, N., "Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time" FINAL SYNTHESIS AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PAPER (USAID and WIDtech 2003).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Namibia, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania
Creator:
Steinzor, N.
Year:
2003

Women's Right to Land and Property

Full Citation: Benschop, M., "Women's Right to Land and Property," WOMEN IN HUMAN SETTLEMENTS DEVELOPMENT-CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES (Commission on Sustainable Development 2004).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Benschop, M.
Year:
2004

Women's Struggle to Secure Land Rights

Full Citation: Kimani, M., "Women's Struggle to Secure Land Rights," 22(1) AFRICA RENEWAL (April 2008).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Kimani, M.
Year:
2008