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Empowering Widows: An Overview of policies and programmes in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka

Full citation: UN Women. (2014). “Empowering Widows: An Overview of policies and programmes in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka.”
- This paper finds that strengthening engagement with civil society in the implementation of government programs results in a more enabling environment for widows to claim services, including land rights. Focus group discussions in India and Nepal showed that widows who were a part of this collaborative effort were more articulate, confident and aware of their rights. This played an important role in helping them claim their entitlements, including land rights. In Sri Lanka, widows have been able to take advantage of government programs for capacity building and skills training due to the partnership between the government and the groups working with widows. In the process, many widows have become agents of change in their community. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Sri Lanka, Nepal, India
Creator:
UN Women
Year:
2014

Evaluation of Grassroots Community-Based Legal Aid Activities in Uganda and Tanzania: Strengthening Women's Legal Knowledge

This is a qualitative study of community-based legal aid programs in Uganda and Tanzania. It assesses the efficacy of legal aid activities, the challenges faced by implementing organizations, and it documents opportunities and potential for scaling–up. It finds that legal aid activities will only be successful if they also succeed at changing the mindsets and attitudes surrounding women’s rights, and that further impact evaluation should be done to determine how to improve activities. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Tanzania, Uganda
Creator:
Behrman, J., Peterman, A. and Billings, L.
Year:
2013

Gender and Land Tenure Reform

Full citation: Giovarelli, R. (2009). “Gender and Land Tenure Reform,” in ONE BILLION RISING 196 (R. Prosterman, et al. eds., Leiden U. Press). - This chapter talks about specific threats to women’s land rights. They include that it may be culturally or legally impossible for women to acquire land rights through markets, inheritance, transfer or gift; that a woman’s marital status (marriage, divorce, bride price, dowry or polygamy) may create barriers to women’s land rights; that privatization or individualization of land may result in loss of non-ownership rights that women have to land (e.g., the right to use land); and that land titling programs may fail to formalize women’s rights.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Giovarelli, R.
Year:
2009

Gender and Property Rights: A Critical Issue in Urban Economic Development

Full citation: Rabenhorst, C. and Bean, A., "Gender and Property Rights: A Critical Issue in Urban Economic Development," IHC PAPER (August 2011). - This paper looks at: (1) gender equality in property rights, i.e., the rights of women to participate in property use and ownership with full legal and societal protection; (2) the importance to economic development of residential and commercial property rights in urban areas; and (3) the role of women in economic development. It profiles the Tanzania Settlements Trust, which forms groups of women that advocate together and provide support for tenure and housing access. It recommends that projects make gender a focus, adequately assess political, legal, and socio-cultural factors regarding gender, and provide training to the community covering: the legal rights of women specifically, including inheritance and divorce; special problems encountered by women such as documentation, location of registration offices, access to credit; involvement of both men and women in the adjudication process and in registration of rights; and clear communication of the benefits of participation.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Rabenhorst, C. and Bean, A.
Year:
2011

Gender and Property Rights within Postconflict Situations

Full citation:Lastarria-Cornhiel, S., "Gender and Property Rights within Postconflict Situation," 12 USAID ISSUE PAPER (April 2005).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Afghanistan, Guatemala, Rwanda
Creator:
Lastarria-Cornhiel, S.
Year:
2005

Gender, Property Rights and Livelihoods in the Era of AIDS

Full citation: Carpano, F., Izumi, K. and Mathieson, K., "Gender, Property Rights and Livelihoods in the Era of AIDS," FAO TECHNICAL CONSULTATION PROCEEDINGS REPORT (November 2007).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Mozambique, Kenya, Uganda
Creator:
Carpano, F., Izumi, K. and Mathieson, K.
Year:
2007

Innovations in land rights recognition, administration, and governance

Full citation: Deininger, K., Augustinus, C., Enemark, S., and Munro-Faure, P. (Eds.) (2010). “Innovations in land rights recognition, administration, and governance.” World Bank Publications. - This paper brings together a variety of studies on land rights. Chapter 4 in particular focuses on efforts to improve tenure security. One study in India examines whether changes in inheritance legislation impact the socioeconomic status of females, and found that when daughters were granted coparcenary birthrights in joint family property denied to daughters in the past, the amendment significantly increased the probability of females inheriting land. However, even after the passage of the amendment, significant bias against females persists. Another study in Ethiopia assesses the effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that were implemented in Ethiopia from the late 1990s. Four rounds of balanced household panel data collected from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are used. After controlling for endogeneity of land certification and unobserved household heterogeneity affecting land market participation, it was found that land certification enhanced land rental market participation of female landlord households. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Ethiopia, India
Creator:
Deininger, K., Augustinus, C., Enemark, S., and Munro-Faure, P.
Year:
2010

The Mystery of Capital Formation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Women, Property Rights and Customary Law

Full citation: Joireman, S.F. (2008). "The Mystery of Capital Formation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Women, Property Rights and Customary Law," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1233-1246, July. - Economists such as Hernando De Soto have argued that clearly defined property rights are essential to capital formation and ultimately to economic growth and poverty alleviation. This article traces two impediments to the clear definition of property rights in the African context: customary law and the status of women. Both of these issues interfere with the attempt of African countries to rearticulate property law with the goal of capital formation. Constructive attempts to define property rights must address the problem of enforcement in under-resourced environments where changes may not be welcomed.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Joireman, S. F.
Year:
2008

Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America

Full citation: Deere, C. D. and Leon, M., "Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America," 1(3) JOURNAL OF AGRARIAN CHANGE 440 (July 2001). - The main focus of state intervention in Latin American agriculture in the 1990s was on land-titling programs, designed to promote security of tenure and enliven land markets. A review of seven of these projects suggests that they were often designed without sufficient attention to civil codes and marital regimes that protect women's property rights. They often ignored that a household's endowment of land may consist of three forms of property: the wife's, the husband's, and jointly owned property. By assuming that the family farm is owned by the male household head, these projects trampled upon women's ownership rights. Nonetheless, the share of female beneficiaries of land-titling projects has been much higher than the share of women adjudicated land under the agrarian reforms of previous decades. This is partly because the primary way that women acquire land is through inheritance, and inheritance appears to be more gender equitable than other manners of acquiring land. It is also due to the impact of the more gender-equitable agrarian legislation of the current period, itself a product of the impact of women's movements on the state. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Deere, C. D. and Leon, M.
Year:
2001

Women's Land Tenure Framework for Analysis: Inheritance

This framework is intended to help you assess the current situation for women’s land rights in a specific country, state, or community. This framework looks at a single question: Can women inherit land?

Collection Type:
Practice Guides
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Giovarelli, R and Scalise, E.
Years:
2015, 2013

Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time

Full citation: Steinzor, N., "Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time" FINAL SYNTHESIS AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PAPER (USAID and WIDtech 2003).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Namibia, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania
Creator:
Steinzor, N.
Year:
2003