Responding to land-based conflict in Ethiopia: The land rights of ethnic minorities under federalism
- Collection Type:
- Lavers, T.
Paper prepared for presentation at the “2017 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty” The World Bank, Washington DC, March 20-24, 2017.
"The Evaluation, Research and Communication (ERC) project was a five-year initiative under the Strengthening Tenure and Resource Rights (STARR) indefinite quantity contract. Implemented from May 2013-July 2018, the goal of ERC was to create, expand and communicate evidence-based knowledge around best land tenure and property rights practices in order to enhance internal USAID and external U.S. Government learning, guide program design and implementation, and make effective use of development resources to accomplish key development objectives."
Full citation: Flintan, F., Ebro, A., Balehegn, M., Aden, H., Disasa, H., Negasa, B., Assefa, A., Eba, B., Getahun, Y. and Mohammed, M. 2019. Household dynamics in pastoral communities and implications for humanitarian aid interventions. ILRI Discussion Paper 37. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.
Full citation: Daley, E. and Englert, B., "Securing Land Rights for Women" 4(1) JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES (2010).
Full citation: Deininger, K., Selod, H. and Burns, A., THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK - IDENTIFYING AND MONITORING GOOD PRACTICES IN THE LAND SECTOR (World Bank 2011).
Full citation: Hatcher, J., Meggiolaro, L. and Ferrer, C.S., "Cultivating Women's Rights for Access to Land," ACTIONAID AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD SECURITY NETWORK COUNTRY ANALYSIS REPORT (October 2005).
Full citation: Mequanint B. Melesse, Adane Dabissa & Erwin Bulte (2018) Joint Land Certification Programmes and Women’s Empowerment: Evidence from Ethiopia, The Journal of Development Studies, 54:10, 1756-1774, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2017.1327662
Full citation: Hallward-Driemeier, M. & Gajigo, O., Strengthening Economic Rights and Women’s Occupational Choice: The Impact of Reforming Ethiopia’s Family Law, World Development, Volume 70, 2015, Pages 260-273.
Full citation: Kumar, N. and Quisumbing, A., "Policy Reform toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia" 1226 IFPRI DISCUSSION PAPER (November 2012). - Using data from the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS), the study shows how two seemingly unrelated reforms—community-based land registration, undertaken since 2003, and changes in the Family Code implemented in 2000—may have created conditions that reinforce each other in improving gender equity. Specifically, the analysis finds (among other things) impacts of the land registration effort on the evolution of perceptions of the distribution of assets upon divorce. The study found that awareness about the land registration process is positively correlated with the shift in perceptions toward equal division of land and livestock upon divorce, particularly for wives in male-headed households. The presence of female members in the Land Administration Committee also had a positive effect on the shift in perceptions toward a more equal distribution of assets upon divorce. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation: Holden, S. and Tefera, T., "From Being Property of Men to Becoming Equal Owners? Early Impacts of Land Regulation and Certification of Women in Southern Ethiopia," FINAL RESEARCH REPORT (UN-HABITAT and GLTN, January 2008). - Land certification has been implemented in Ethiopia since 1998 and over 5 million certificates have been delivered. This study in the Oromiya region (OR) and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia, aims to assess the early impacts of land registration and certification that has been implemented there since 2004. Special emphasis is placed on the impacts of the reform on women, including the impacts of joint certification for husbands and wives. While the land laws first introduced in the Oromiya and SNNP regions in 2002 and 2003 stated that the husband could have his name on only one certificate, resistance caused a change such that certificates could be issued jointly to the husband and his wives, or the husband’s name could also be included below the name of his second and later wives, while he has his name first on the certificate with his first wife. The study finds that low-cost land reform in Southern Ethiopia has contributed to increase the perceptions of tenure security for both women and men. The women’s names on the land certificates increased the perception that the women would be able to keep the land after the divorce or death of their husband, with some differences among wives in polygamous households. The reform had limited impact on women’s ability to influence farm management, perhaps because of the prevalence of sharecropping. The study recommends that information dissemination, mobilisation and organisation of women’s group. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation: Deininger, K., Augustinus, C., Enemark, S., and Munro-Faure, P. (Eds.) (2010). “Innovations in land rights recognition, administration, and governance.” World Bank Publications. - This paper brings together a variety of studies on land rights. Chapter 4 in particular focuses on efforts to improve tenure security. One study in India examines whether changes in inheritance legislation impact the socioeconomic status of females, and found that when daughters were granted coparcenary birthrights in joint family property denied to daughters in the past, the amendment significantly increased the probability of females inheriting land. However, even after the passage of the amendment, significant bias against females persists. Another study in Ethiopia assesses the effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that were implemented in Ethiopia from the late 1990s. Four rounds of balanced household panel data collected from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are used. After controlling for endogeneity of land certification and unobserved household heterogeneity affecting land market participation, it was found that land certification enhanced land rental market participation of female landlord households. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation: Quisumbing, A. and Kumar, N. (2014). “Land Rights Knowledge and Conservation in Rural Ethiopia: Mind the Gender Gap.” IFPRI. - This paper examines the community-based land certification effort in Ethiopia, an early successful attempt to implement a cost-effective and transparent land-registration process. It found that while the difference between male- and female-headed households’ proportions of land registered is small, there is a “glaring” gap in men’s and women’s knowledge of land rights and that educating women had significant impact on soil conservation. Using the 2009 round of the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey, the paper examines the medium-term impact of the land registration on investment behavior by households, particularly the adoption of soil conservation techniques and tree planting. The paper suggests that closing the knowledge gap in legal rights is an important step to improving adoption of soil conservation technologies and sustainable farming techniques. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]