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Gender and Green Governance

Full citation: Agarwal, B. (2010). Gender and Green Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press). - This book is based on a primary survey of community forestry institutions (CFIs) in the early 2000s, and on fieldwork in Nepal and India. It examines the impact the gender composition of a group has on women’s effective participation, rule-making, rule violations, forest conservation, and firewood and fodder shortages.

It finds that women’s greater presence in CFIs has many statistically demonstrable benefits. It enhances women’s effective voice in decision-making; influences the nature of decisions made, especially the rules of forest use and their implementation; and improves forest condition. Measures that help increase women’s presence in governance institutions (and especially poor women’s presence) would thus be beneficial both because their participation is intrinsically important for inclusive governance and successful institutional functioning, and to better fulfill the conservation and subsistence objectives of such institutions. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Nepal, India
Creator:
Agarwal, B.
Year:
2010

The paradox of gender discrimination in land ownership and women's contribution to poverty reduction in Anglophone Cameroon

Full citation: Fonjong, L., Fombe, L., & Sama-lang, I. (2013). “The paradox of gender discrimination in land ownership and women's contribution to poverty reduction in Anglophone Cameroon.” GeoJournal, 78(3), 575-589. - This study adopted a method of field work involving observations, the use of questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions for data collection that was able to capture key issues related to women, culture and land. The sample size of 2,205 participants included 80 % women and 20 % men from all socio-economic, political, demographic and ethnic groups. In addition to this sample, interviews were conducted and focus-group discussions held with key women, human rights NGOs and, traditional and administrative authorities in each of the localities.

The study found that land is an important factor of production for both men and women in predominantly agrarian Cameroon. While the legal framework in Cameroon advocates for equal rights and opportunities to resources, the majority of rural women who are mostly peasant farmers can neither inherit nor own land due to gender discriminatory customary practices. The findings revealed that although women are key players in the struggle against poverty who depend solely on land, they still do not have security of tenure over the land they cultivate. Specifically, land inheritance is one of the areas in which gender discrimination is still prevalent. It is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural practices of both patrilineal and matrilineal societies. In matrilineal communities like Aghen and part of Kom, where inheritance follows the female linage, the sons, and not the daughters of this linage have inheritance rights. Field investigation indicates that men and women are unanimous on the fact that current practices discriminate against women. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Cameroon
Creator:
Fonjong, L., Fombe, L., & Sama-lang, I.
Year:
2013

Legal Empowerment in Practice: Using Legal Tools to Secure Land Rights in Africa

Full citation: Cotula, L. and Mathieu, P., "Legal Empowerment in Practice: Using Legal Tools to Secure Land Rights in Africa," IIED & FAO REPORT (May 2008).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda
Creator:
Cotula, L. and Mathieu, P.
Year:
2008

Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time

Full citation: Steinzor, N., "Women's Property and Inheritance Rights: Improving Lives in a Changing Time" FINAL SYNTHESIS AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PAPER (USAID and WIDtech 2003).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Namibia, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania
Creator:
Steinzor, N.
Year:
2003

Nepal Lands Act

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Nepal
Creator:
Government of Nepal
Year:
1964

Conflict in Congo

Collection Type:
News & Commentary
Country:
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Creator:
Camm, M.
Year:
2011

Forum News

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Burma, Multiple Countries, Papua New Guinea, Nepal, Cambodia
Creator:
Multiple Contributing Authors
Year:
2012

Securing the Right to Land

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Brazil, Nepal, Uganda
Creator:
Chavez-Tafur, J., Goodijk, D., Tumendemberel, B. and Turinayo, A.
Year:
2011

UN Women: Changing Lives in Africa 2012

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ethiopia, Senegal, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Rwanda
Creator:
Multiple Contributing Authors
Year:
2012

Engendering Access to Justice: Grassroots women's approaches to securing land rights

The community-based study has three purposes: 1. Highlight the multitude of issues and challenges facing African women in relation to land and property. 2. Document the main strategies that grassroots women’s groups are using to help women attain justice, either by working within or influencing customary legal frameworks, or by assisting women to access the court system, in order to develop a cohesive series of strategies for grassroots women-led groups to use in achieving justice in relation to land and property. 3. Provide evidence that can be used to insert grassroots women’s perspectives and practices into the existing development discourse on women’s access to justice in relation to land and property, particularly within the African context.

It finds broadly that the most important components of successful approaches are: community sensitization and training sessions on customary and statutory legal systems; community mapping; local-to-local dialogues with headmen, chiefs, and local leaders; • the use of community paralegals for information, advice, and access to resources for grassroots women; the use of watchdogs to identify and highlight problems in a community; and, • the development of partnerships with key stakeholders. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Creator:
Brown, J. and Gallant, G.
Year:
2014

Empowering Widows: An Overview of policies and programmes in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka

Full citation: UN Women. (2014). “Empowering Widows: An Overview of policies and programmes in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka.”
- This paper finds that strengthening engagement with civil society in the implementation of government programs results in a more enabling environment for widows to claim services, including land rights. Focus group discussions in India and Nepal showed that widows who were a part of this collaborative effort were more articulate, confident and aware of their rights. This played an important role in helping them claim their entitlements, including land rights. In Sri Lanka, widows have been able to take advantage of government programs for capacity building and skills training due to the partnership between the government and the groups working with widows. In the process, many widows have become agents of change in their community. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Sri Lanka, Nepal, India
Creator:
UN Women
Year:
2014

Women and Land: Securing Rights for Better Lives

Full citation: Budlender, D. and Alma, E., "Women and Land: Securing Rights for Better Lives," IDRC PAPERS (November 2011). - This book focuses on recent findings from sub Saharan Africa on women and land. It finds:
• Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about immediate benefits than other, more traditional research methods.
• Merely passing legislation is of little effect without the necessary resources for implementation, without informing and educating all relevant actors on the provisions of the legislation, without monitoring the reforms, and without effective sanctions on failure to implement.
• It is crucial both to consult and involve women when designing reforms and monitoring their implementation.
• Women’s access to land does not simply hinge on a choice between customary and statutory systems. Rather, we are faced with a more complex question of how the two systems interact and are used by different groups of women and men. The research also emphasizes the need to think about customary law as “living” and evolving.
• Addressing land injustices requires varied approaches that streamline and consolidate numerous land laws in a given country. It is vital to establish and maintain links among research, policy, practice, and people.
• The importance of providing teaching and training in a variety of disciplines for a young generation of women in Africa cannot be overstated.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Colombia, Pakistan, Malawi, Senegal, Cameroon
Creator:
Budlender, D. and Alma, E
Year:
2011

Prindex: Comparative Report

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Madagascar, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, Burkina Faso, Honduras, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Liberia, Peru, Namibia, Senegal, Cameroon, Zambia, Mozambique, Rwanda
Creator:
Prindex
Year:
2018

Congo (Democratic Republic of) Family Code

The Family Code is divided into five books: Nationality, The Person, The Family, Inheritance and Estates, Amendments and Repealed Provisions.

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Creator:
Government of the DRC
Year:
Unknown

Cameroon Constitution

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Cameroon
Creator:
Republic of Cameroon
Years:
2008, 1996

Cameroon Civil code

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Cameroon
Creator:
Government of Cameroon
Year:
2005

Cameroon Penal Code

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Cameroon
Creator:
Government of Cameroon
Year:
1967