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Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America

Full citation: Deere, C. D. and Leon, M., "Who Owns the Land? Gender and Land-Titling Programmes in Latin America," 1(3) JOURNAL OF AGRARIAN CHANGE 440 (July 2001). - The main focus of state intervention in Latin American agriculture in the 1990s was on land-titling programs, designed to promote security of tenure and enliven land markets. A review of seven of these projects suggests that they were often designed without sufficient attention to civil codes and marital regimes that protect women's property rights. They often ignored that a household's endowment of land may consist of three forms of property: the wife's, the husband's, and jointly owned property. By assuming that the family farm is owned by the male household head, these projects trampled upon women's ownership rights. Nonetheless, the share of female beneficiaries of land-titling projects has been much higher than the share of women adjudicated land under the agrarian reforms of previous decades. This is partly because the primary way that women acquire land is through inheritance, and inheritance appears to be more gender equitable than other manners of acquiring land. It is also due to the impact of the more gender-equitable agrarian legislation of the current period, itself a product of the impact of women's movements on the state. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Deere, C. D. and Leon, M.
Year:
2001

Securing Land Rights for Women

Full citation: Daley, E. and Englert, B., "Securing Land Rights for Women" 4(1) JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES (2010).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Multiple Countries
Creator:
Daley, E. and Englert, B.
Year:
2010

Women’s Land Rights

Full citation: ActionAid International, "Women's Land Rights," ACTIONAID INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSION PAPER (March 2006).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
ActionAid International
Year:
2006

Cultivating Women’s Rights for Access to Land

Full citation: Hatcher, J., Meggiolaro, L. and Ferrer, C.S., "Cultivating Women's Rights for Access to Land," ACTIONAID AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD SECURITY NETWORK COUNTRY ANALYSIS REPORT (October 2005).

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Uganda, Ghana, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Malawi, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Vietnam, Multiple Countries
Creator:
Hatcher, J., Meggiolaro, L. and Ferrer, C.S.
Year:
2005

Liberalisation and the Debates on Women’s Access to Land

Full citation: Razavi, S., "Liberalisation and the Debates on Women's Access to Land," 28(8) THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY 1479 (December 2007). - This article focuses on the tensions and ambiguities that may keep women from effectively accessing land. Barriers include liberalization policies that focus on “family farming,” customary land tenure systems, and decentralization of land management. Women’s rights advocates fear that these can be manipulated by groups hostile to women’s rights.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Razavi, S.
Year:
2007

Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Full citation: Farnworth, C., Sundell, M.F., Nzioki, A., Shivutse, V. and Davis, M., Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative (2013).

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Farnworth, C., Sundell, M.F., Nzioki, A., Shivutse, V. and Davis, M.
Year:
2013

The Global Gender Gap Report

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Hausmann, R., Tyson, L. and Zahidi, S.
Years:
2011, 2010

Gapminder

over 400 indicators on global development. 

Collection Type:
Legal Research Resources
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Gapminder Foundation
Year:
2014

The gender asset gap: land in Latin America

Full citation: Deere, C. and Leon, M. (2003). “The gender asset gap: land in Latin America.” World Development, 31 (6), pp 925-947. - The gender asset gap in Latin America with respect to ownership of land is significant. In few countries do women constitute even one-quarter of the landowners. Gender inequality in land ownership is related to male preference in inheritance, male privilege in marriage, male bias in community and state programs of land distribution as well as gender bias in the land market, with women less likely than men to be successful buyers. But there are also important differences by gender in how land is acquired. Inheritance is the primary means by which most women become landowners; men are much more likely than women to acquire land through its distribution by communities or the state and via the market. Factors contributing toward a trend toward greater gender equity in land inheritance and in recent state programs are highlighted.
[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Deere, C. and Leon, M.
Year:
2003

Gender and Land Tenure Reform

Full citation: Giovarelli, R. (2009). “Gender and Land Tenure Reform,” in ONE BILLION RISING 196 (R. Prosterman, et al. eds., Leiden U. Press). - This chapter talks about specific threats to women’s land rights. They include that it may be culturally or legally impossible for women to acquire land rights through markets, inheritance, transfer or gift; that a woman’s marital status (marriage, divorce, bride price, dowry or polygamy) may create barriers to women’s land rights; that privatization or individualization of land may result in loss of non-ownership rights that women have to land (e.g., the right to use land); and that land titling programs may fail to formalize women’s rights.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Giovarelli, R.
Year:
2009

The Mystery of Capital Formation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Women, Property Rights and Customary Law

Full citation: Joireman, S.F. (2008). "The Mystery of Capital Formation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Women, Property Rights and Customary Law," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1233-1246, July. - Economists such as Hernando De Soto have argued that clearly defined property rights are essential to capital formation and ultimately to economic growth and poverty alleviation. This article traces two impediments to the clear definition of property rights in the African context: customary law and the status of women. Both of these issues interfere with the attempt of African countries to rearticulate property law with the goal of capital formation. Constructive attempts to define property rights must address the problem of enforcement in under-resourced environments where changes may not be welcomed.

[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Joireman, S. F.
Year:
2008

Gender and Agroforestry in Africa: A review of women's participation

Full citation: Kiptot, E. and Franzel, S. (2012). “Gender and agroforestry in Africa: A review of women's participation.” Agroforestry Systems, 84(1), 35-58. - This paper presents a review of agroforestry in Africa from a gender perspective. It examines women's participation relative to men and the challenges and successes they experience. The review shows that agroforestry has the potential to offer substantial benefits to women; however, their participation is low in enterprises that are considered men's domain, such as timber and high in enterprises that have little or no commercial value, such as collection of indigenous fruits and vegetables. Data on whether women are able to manage agroforestry practices as well as men are mixed, although it is clear that women do most of the work. In cases where they do not perform well, the reasons are mostly due to scarcity of resources. In marketing, women are confined to the lower end of the value chain (retailing), which limits their control over and returns from the productive process. In order to promote gender equity in agroforestry and to ensure that women benefit fully, the paper recommends various policy, technological and institutional interventions. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Franzel, S. and Kiptot, E.
Year:
2012

Gender and Green Governance

Full citation: Agarwal, B. (2010). Gender and Green Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press). - This book is based on a primary survey of community forestry institutions (CFIs) in the early 2000s, and on fieldwork in Nepal and India. It examines the impact the gender composition of a group has on women’s effective participation, rule-making, rule violations, forest conservation, and firewood and fodder shortages.

It finds that women’s greater presence in CFIs has many statistically demonstrable benefits. It enhances women’s effective voice in decision-making; influences the nature of decisions made, especially the rules of forest use and their implementation; and improves forest condition. Measures that help increase women’s presence in governance institutions (and especially poor women’s presence) would thus be beneficial both because their participation is intrinsically important for inclusive governance and successful institutional functioning, and to better fulfill the conservation and subsistence objectives of such institutions. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
India, Nepal, Multiple Countries
Creator:
Agarwal, B.
Year:
2010

Gender and sustainable forest management in East Africa and Latin America

Full citation: Mwangi, E., Meinzen-Dick, R. and Sun, Y. (2011). “Gender and sustainable forest management in East Africa and Latin America.” Ecology and Society 16(1): 17. - This paper presents a comparative study of forest management across four countries in East Africa and Latin America: Kenya, Uganda, Bolivia, and Mexico. It focuses on whether varying proportions of women (low, mixed, high) in forest user groups influence their likelihood of adopting forest resource enhancing behavior and finds that higher proportions of females in user groups, and especially user groups dominated by females, perform less well than mixed groups or male dominated ones. This may be because of gender biases in technology access and dissemination, a labor constraint faced by women, and/or a possible limitation to women’s sanctioning authority. Mixed female and male groups offer an avenue for exploiting the strengths of women and men, while tempering their individual shortcomings. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Mwangi, E., Meinzen-Dick, R. and Sun, Y.
Year:
2011

A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia

Full citation: Agarwal, B. (1995). A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Agarwal, B.
Year:
1995

The gender implications of large-scale land deals

Full citation: Behrman, J., R. Meinzen-Dick, and A. Quisumbing. (2012). The gender implications of large-scale land deals. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(1): 49-79.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Behrman, J., R. Meinzen-Dick, and A. Quisumbing
Year:
2012

Land and Schooling: Transferring wealth across generations

Full citation: Quisumbing, A. R., Estudillo, J. P., & Otsuka, K. (2004). Land and Schooling: Transferring wealth across generations. Washington D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Quisumbing, A. R., Estudillo, J. P., & Otsuka, K.
Year:
2004

The Civil Law in Spain and Spanish America

Full citation: Walton, Clifford Stevens, 2003. The Civil Law in Spain and Spanish America.

Collection Type:
Citations
Country:
Multiple Countries, Spain
Creator:
Walton, C. S.
Year:
2003