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Argentina Labor Law

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Argentina
Creator:
Government of Argentina
Year:
1976

Cambodia Labor Law

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Cambodia
Creator:
Government of Cambodia
Year:
1997

Cocoa, Marriage, Labour, and Land in Ghana: Some Matrilineal and Patrilineal Perspectives

Full citation: Duncan, B.A. (2010). “Cocoa, Marriage, Labour, and Land in Ghana: Some Matrilineal and Patrilineal Perspectives.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 80 (2), 301–21. - Based on field research conducted between April 2006 and November 2007 in four matrilineal and two patrilineal communities located in the Brong Ahafo, Western and Volta regions, the study sets out important changes taking place within the institutions of marriage, land tenure and conjugal labour relations, within the cocoa production sector. Many scholars have documented systems of land exchange between husbands and wives for services rendered within the context of cocoa farming. This study shows that new and previously undocumented forms of informal conjugal unions may be coming into existence in the context of cocoa production, and these new arrangements provide much less land tenure security for women.

In the matrilineal communities especially, formal marriage arrangements appear to be an exception rather than the prevailing norm. Contract marriages, popular in the western region, are essentially seasonal arrangements made between men and women particularly during the cocoa harvesting season, which lasts for a period of three to six months, after which the relationship is either renewed or terminated. No land is exchanged in a contract marriage. Consensual unions are not as secure as formal marriages, but are a step toward formal marriage. In one case, the Ghanaian court said women in such relationships were entitled to a one-third share of cocoa land which they had assisted their partners to develop. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Ghana
Creator:
Duncan, B.A.
Year:
2010

Cote d'Ivoire Labor Code

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Cote d'Ivoire
Creator:
Government of Cote d'Ivoire
Year:
1995

Gender-based violence and environment linkages: The violence of inequality

Abstract: 

Rooted in discriminatory gender norms and laws and shrouded in impunity, gender-based violence (GBV) occurs in all societies as a means of control, subjugation and exploitation that further reinforces gender inequality. This publication establishes that these patterns of gender-based abuse are observed across environmental contexts, affecting the security and well-being of nations, communities and individuals, and jeopardising meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs). While linkages between GBV and environmental issues are complex and multi-layered, these threats to human rights and healthy ecosystems are not insurmountable. This analysis reveals the complex and interlinking nature of GBV across three main contexts: access to and control of natural resources; environmental pressure and threats; and environmental action to defend and conserve ecosystems and resources. This publication aims to raise awareness and engage actors working in environmental and sustainable development, gender equality, and GBV policymaking and programming spheres to inform rights-based, gender-responsive approaches to environmental policy, programmes and projects. 

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
IUCN Global Programme on Governance and Rights (GPGR)
Year:
2020

Intimate Partner Violence and Land Toolkit

This toolkit from USAID "addresses activities and projects that USAID staff may design to strengthen and secure land tenure, property rights and land governance in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. The Toolkit is one of several gender-based violence (GBV) Toolkits that USAID has developed to address concerns related to GBV in other sectors including, but not limited to, Economic Growth, Energy and Infrastructure, Monitoring and Evaluation and the Rule of Law."

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
USAID
Year:
2017

Kyrgyz Country Case Study

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Kyrgyz Republic
Creator:
Ibraeva, G., Moldosheva, A. and Niyazova, A.
Year:
2011

Madagascar Labor Code

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Madagascar
Creator:
Government of Madagascar
Year:
1995

Nigeria Labour Act

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Nigeria
Creator:
Government of Nigeria
Year:
1990

Philippines Labor Code

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Philippines
Creator:
Government of the Philippines
Year:
1974

Securing the Right to Land

Collection Type:
Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Brazil, Nepal, Uganda
Creator:
Chavez-Tafur, J., Goodijk, D., Tumendemberel, B. and Turinayo, A.
Year:
2011

Venezuela Labor Law

Collection Type:
Legal Materials
Country:
Venezuela
Creator:
Government of Venezuela
Year:
2012