This is an English translation from the Chinese National People's Congress website.
- Collection Type:
- Legal Materials
- National People's Congress
- 2005, 1992
This is an English translation from the Chinese National People's Congress website.
This act creates the National Commission for Women and prescribes the powers and functions of this commission.
The original 1993 act creates national and state level commissions and human rights courts to protect human rights. The 2006 amendment makes specific changes to the original act.
Full Citation: Benschop, M., "Women's Right to Land and Property," WOMEN IN HUMAN SETTLEMENTS DEVELOPMENT-CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES (Commission on Sustainable Development 2004).
Full Citation: IFPRI, Strengthening Women's Control of Assets for Better Development Outcomes (IFPRI 2008).
Full Citation: Agarwal, B., "Gender and Command Over Property: A Critical Gap in Economic Analysis and Policy in South Asia," 22(10) WORLD DEVELOPMENT 1478 (1994)
Full Citation: Agarwal, B., "Gender and Legal Rights in Agricultural Land in India," 12 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (March 1995).
Full Citation: Kelkar, G., "Gender and Productive Assets: Implications for Women's Economic Security and Productivity," 23 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (June 2011).
Full Citation: Swaminathan, H. et al., "Gender Asset and Wealth Gaps: Evidence from Karnataka," 35 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (Sept. 2012).
Full Citation: Rao, N., "Gender Equality, Land Rights and Household Food Security - Discussion of Rice Farming Systems," 25 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (June 2005).
Full Citation: Agarwal, B., "Landmark Step to Gender Equality," THE HINDU ONLINE EDITION (Sept. 2005).
Full Citation: ICRW, "Property Ownership for Women Enriches, Empowers and Protects Towards Achieving the Third Millennium Development Goal to Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women," ICRW MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS SERIES (2005)
Full Citation: Singh, K., "Towards Achieving Equal Rights in Marriage," 24 ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (June 2012).
Full Citation: World Bank, China: Research Report on Gender Gaps and Poverty Reduction (World Bank and ADB 2006).
Full Citation: Jing, W. and Tong, S., "The Progress of the Chinese Gender Awareness Reflected in the Transition from the Equality between Men and Women to the Gender Justice," M&D FORUM (SEI n.d.).
Full Citation: All-China Women's Federation, Report on Major Results of the Third Wave Survey on The Social Status of Women in China (ACWF 2011).
Full Citation: Jacka, T., "Approaches to Women and Development in Rural China," 15(49) JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY CHINA 585 (2006).
Full Citation: Sargeson, S., "Governing Women's Capabilities in China's Urban Expansion," 9(2) INTERNATIONAL FEMINIST JOURNAL OF POLITICS 154 (2007).
Full Citation: Agarwal, B., "Bargaining and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household," FCND Discussion Paper No. 27 (IFPRI 1997).
Full citation: Cheryl Doss, Carmen Diana Deere, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan, Suchitra J. Y., Rahul Lahoti, W. Baah-Boateng, L. Boakye-Yiadom, Jackeline Contreras, Jennifer Twyman, Zachary Catanzarite, Caren Grown, and Marya Hillesland. The Gender Asset and Wealth Gaps: Evidence from Ecuador, Ghana, and Karnataka, India. Bangalore: Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. 2011.
Full Citation: Lawyers Collective Women’s Rights Initiative, Mapping Women's Gains in Inheritance and Property Rights under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (n.d.).
Full Citation: Jacka, T., "Increasing Women's Participation in Village Government in China: Is It Worth It?" 40(4) CRITICAL ASIAN STUDIES 499 (2008).
Full citation: FAO, "Governing Land for Women and Men: A Technical Guide to Support the Achievement of Responsible Gender-Equitable Governance Land Tenure," 1 GOVERNANCE OF TENURE TECHNICAL GUIDE (FAO 2013).
Full citation: Manji, A., "Eliminating Poverty? "Financial Inclusion", Access to Land, and Gender Equality in International Development," 73(6) THE MODERN LAW REVIEW (2010).
Full citation: Ikdahl, I et al., "Human Rights, Formalisation and Women’s Land Rights in Southern and Eastern Africa", 57 STUDIES IN WOMEN'S LAW, (University of Oslo, Norway 2005).
Full citation: Kumar, N. and Quisumbing, A., "Policy Reform toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia" 1226 IFPRI DISCUSSION PAPER (November 2012). - Using data from the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS), the study shows how two seemingly unrelated reforms—community-based land registration, undertaken since 2003, and changes in the Family Code implemented in 2000—may have created conditions that reinforce each other in improving gender equity. Specifically, the analysis finds (among other things) impacts of the land registration effort on the evolution of perceptions of the distribution of assets upon divorce. The study found that awareness about the land registration process is positively correlated with the shift in perceptions toward equal division of land and livestock upon divorce, particularly for wives in male-headed households. The presence of female members in the Land Administration Committee also had a positive effect on the shift in perceptions toward a more equal distribution of assets upon divorce. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation: GLTN, "Gender Evaluation Criteria for Large-Scale Land Tools," 2 GLTN BRIEF (UN-Habitat, 2012).
Full citation: UN Women, "Decent Work and Women's Economic Empowerment: Good Policy and Practice," UN WOMEN POLICY BRIEF (2012).
Full citation: UN Human Rights Council, "Final Study of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee on Rural Women and the Right to Food," HRC REPORT A/HRC/22/72 (United Nations, December 2012).
Full citation: Dookie, C., Lambrou, Y., and Petrics, H., "CEDAW: A Tool for Gender-Sensitive Agriculture and Rural Development Policy and Programme Formulation," FAO PUBLICATION (FAO, 2013).
Full citation: IDLO, "Accessing Justice: Models, Strategies and Best Practices on Women's Empowerment," IDLO REPORT (2013). - This paper highlights some of the challenges and solutions for women’s access to justice in diverse legal systems. It shows that women face structural and cultural barriers to accessing justice – insufficient knowledge of rights and remedies, illiteracy or poor literacy, and lack of resources or time to participate in justice processes. This is all the more so as women usually have intensive family responsibilities. Even where women can access the formal justice sector, the outcomes of the process often fall far short of those envisaged by international standards, particularly with regard to property rights, inheritance, divorce and child custody, and spousal abuse. Focusing on legal empowerment as a way to improve both access to justice and the quality of justice women receive, the study presents strategies and best practices in both formal and informal justice systems. Legal empowerment approaches share one core concept: using the law to enable disadvantaged groups to access justice and realize basic rights. They include legal education; legal aid services; support for non-discriminatory dispute resolution fora to complement or supplement informal systems; training of paralegals; and rights awareness. In considering whether such approaches can improve the quality of justice women receive, Accessing Justice brings together a number of IDLO-sponsored case studies in Afghanistan, India, Namibia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Tanzania, Morocco, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These highlight a variety of lessons for development practitioners, both in terms of engagement with the informal legal sector and, more generally, for the use of legal empowerment and top-down / bottom-up strategies. In an appropriate context, carefully designed legal empowerment strategies may constitute a valuable contribution to improving women’s access to justice.
[Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation: Razavi, S., "Land Tenure Reform and Gender Equality," 4 UNRISD RESEARCH AND POLICY BRIEF (January 2006).
Full citation: OECD, "Gender and Sustainable Development: Maximising the Economic, Social and Environmental Role of Women," OECD REPORT (2008).
Full citation: Agarwal, B., "Rural Women, Poverty and Natural Resources: Sustenance, Sustainability and Struggle for Change," 24(43) ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY (1989).
This is proclamation no. 240 of 2001 to provide for the establishment of the Ethiopian Women's Development Fund
Passed Parliament in 2013.
Full citation: IFAD, "Gender and Rural Development Brief: Europe and Central Asia," IFAD BRIEF (2013).
Full citation: Kelkar, G., "At the Threshold of Economic Empowerment: Women, Work and Gender Regimes in Asia," ILO WORKING PAPER (2013).
Full citation: Doss, C., Kovarik, C., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A. and van den Bold, M., "Gender Inequalities in Ownership and Control of Land in Africa: Myths versus Reality," 01308 IFPRI DISCUSSION PAPER (December 2013).
Full citation: UN Women, "Progress of the World's Women: In Pursuit of Justice," UN WOMEN REPORT (2011).
Full citation: Farnworth, C., Sundell, M.F., Nzioki, A., Shivutse, V. and Davis, M., Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative (2013).
Full citation: TAWLA, "Position Paper on Gender Mainstreaming of the Constitution Review Process of Tanzania," TAWLA PAPER (2013).
Full citation: Spichiger, R., Broegaard, R. B., Pedersen, R. H., and Ravnborg, H. M., "Land administration, gender equality and development cooperation: Lessons learned and challenges ahead," 30 DIIS REPORT (2013).
Full citation: Buvinic, M., Furst-Nichols, R., and Pryor, E. C., "A Roadmap for Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment," UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION (2013). - This roadmap has a section on the importance of formal ownership and control over farmland for women’s productivity and economic security, hinging on paying attention to social and local contexts. It recommends an integrated suite of services, which target both production and marketing and address social constraints. It notes that land titling programs can help women where women’s names are on the title and where attention is paid to customary rules and the ways they may discriminate. Also finds that agricultural interventions have successfully increased the stock of both men’s and/or women’s s tangible assets, but particularly those assets they own jointly. In addition, projects have also increased the stock of social and human capital, particularly for women. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]
Full citation:PANAP, "Women Reclaim Our Seeds," PANAP REPORT (2013).
Full citation: ICJ, "Women's Access to Justice in Kazakhstan: Identifying the Obstacles & Need for Change," ICJ REPORT (2013).