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Policy reform toward gender equality in Ethiopia

Full citation: Kumar, N. and Quisumbing, A., "Policy Reform toward Gender Equality in Ethiopia" 1226 IFPRI DISCUSSION PAPER (November 2012). - Using data from the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS), the study shows how two seemingly unrelated reforms—community-based land registration, undertaken since 2003, and changes in the Family Code implemented in 2000—may have created conditions that reinforce each other in improving gender equity. Specifically, the analysis finds (among other things) impacts of the land registration effort on the evolution of perceptions of the distribution of assets upon divorce. The study found that awareness about the land registration process is positively correlated with the shift in perceptions toward equal division of land and livestock upon divorce, particularly for wives in male-headed households. The presence of female members in the Land Administration Committee also had a positive effect on the shift in perceptions toward a more equal distribution of assets upon divorce. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Ethiopia
Creator:
Kumar, N. and Quisumbing, A. R.
Year:
2012

Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India

Full citation: Deere, C. D., Oduro, A., Swaminathan, H. and Doss, C., "Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India," 13 GENDER ASSET GAP PROJECT WORKING PAPER (August 2012). - This paper finds that basic property rights are insufficient, for much depends upon the legal and cultural regimes related to marriage and inheritance. Drawing upon household asset surveys which collected individual level ownership data in Ecuador, Ghana and the state of Karnataka in India, it estimates married women’s share of couple wealth and relate it to whether major household assets are owned individually or jointly during the marriage as well as to different inheritance regimes and practices. In Ecuador, married women own 44 percent, in Ghana, 19 percent, and in Karnataka, nine percent of couple wealth. Ecuador is characterized by the partial community property regime in marriage while inheritance laws provide for all children, irrespective of sex, to be treated equally, rules that are largely followed in practice. In contrast, Ghana and India are characterized by the separation of property regime which does not recognize wives’ contribution to the formation of marital property, and by inheritance practices that are strongly male biased. Reforming marital and inheritance regimes must remain a top priority in many regions of the world if gender economic equality is to be attained. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Ecuador, Ghana, India
Creator:
Deere, C. D., Oduro, A., Swaminathan, H. and Doss, C.
Year:
2012

Land in the Right Hands: Promoting Women's Rights to Land

This paper summarizes several UN Women projects from 2004 to 2009 aimed at improving women’s land rights in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The key objective was to drive and boost positive changes in political, legal and public domains through mainstreaming gender in ongoing agrarian reforms and follow-up monitoring. One key set of programming was the provision of legal counseling, business training, and the establishment of cooperatives and self-help groups. Over 2002-2006 the number of women running farms in Tajikistan increased from 2 to 14 per cent. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Tajikistan, Kyrgyz Republic
Creator:
Multiple Contributing Authors
Year:
2012

Protecting Community Lands and Resources: Evidence from Liberia, Mozambique and Uganda

Namati and International Development Law Organization (IDLO) publication.

- The study’s objectives were to: facilitate the documentation and protection of customarily held community lands through legally established community land titling processes; understand how to best support communities to successfully protect their lands and determine the types and level of support required; and pilot strategies to guard against intra-community injustice and discrimination during community land titling processes and protect the interests of vulnerable groups. Cross-national analysis of the data illustrates that the by-laws/constitution-drafting process had a statistically significant impact on the substance of women’s and other vulnerable groups’ land rights. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries, Liberia, Mozambique, Uganda
Creator:
Multiple Contributing Authors
Year:
2012

Empowering Women: Legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa

Full citation: Hallward-Driemeier, M. and Hasan, T. (2012). “Empowering Women: Legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa.” Africa Development Forum Series, World Bank, Washington, DC. - This paper finds that out of forty-three African jurisdictions twenty-two formally recognize males as the head of the household, giving them sole discretion to represent the household and make household decisions. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Hallward-Driemeier, M. and Hasan, T.
Year:
2012

Gender and Agroforestry in Africa: A review of women's participation

Full citation: Kiptot, E. and Franzel, S. (2012). “Gender and agroforestry in Africa: A review of women's participation.” Agroforestry Systems, 84(1), 35-58. - This paper presents a review of agroforestry in Africa from a gender perspective. It examines women's participation relative to men and the challenges and successes they experience. The review shows that agroforestry has the potential to offer substantial benefits to women; however, their participation is low in enterprises that are considered men's domain, such as timber and high in enterprises that have little or no commercial value, such as collection of indigenous fruits and vegetables. Data on whether women are able to manage agroforestry practices as well as men are mixed, although it is clear that women do most of the work. In cases where they do not perform well, the reasons are mostly due to scarcity of resources. In marketing, women are confined to the lower end of the value chain (retailing), which limits their control over and returns from the productive process. In order to promote gender equity in agroforestry and to ensure that women benefit fully, the paper recommends various policy, technological and institutional interventions. [Threats to Women’s Land Tenure Security and Effectiveness of Interventions - Annotated Bibliography]

Collection Type:
Research Articles
Country:
Multiple Countries
Creator:
Franzel, S. and Kiptot, E.
Year:
2012