V. Endnotes & Citations

Page Contents

This page will highlight a few areas for analysis.

To jump to one of the sections on this page use the below links:

Endnotes & Citations

The Constitution of Kenya (2010).

Id. at Art. 27.

Id. at art. 7.

Id. at art. 67(2)(f) and art. 159 (2)(c).

Id. at art. 159(3)(c).

Id. at art. 27(8).

FIDA Kenya, Women's Land and Property Rights in Kenya (2009) [hereinafter Women's Land].

8 Id.

Const., supra note 1, at art. 61(2).

10 Id. at art. 62(1).

11 Id. at art. 66(1).

12 Id. at art. 40(3).

13 Id. at art. 64.

14 The Land Act (2012)(Kenya) at § 107-120.

15 Const., supra note 1, at art. 40(1).

16 Id. at art. 27(1).

17 Id. at art. 63(2).

18 Const., supra note 1 at art. 27(1).

19 Id. at art. 27(3).

20 Id. at art. 27(4).

21 Id. at art. 27(6).

22 Id. at art. 2(6).

23 Each declaration protects women’s property rights to some extent, but language and interpretations vary.

24 Const., supra note 1, at art. 2(4).

25 Id. at art. 159(3).

26 Id. at art. 60(1)(f).

27 National Land Policy (2009)(Kenya) at para. 7(c).

28 Id. at ix.

29 Id. at § 63-66.

30 Id. at § 5.

31 Id. at § 178-179.

32 Id. at § 223.

33 Id. at § 223(c).

34 Id. at § 225(c).

35 Id. at § 225(d).

36 Id. at § 223(e).

37 Const., supra note 1 at art. 68(a).

38 Land Act, supra note 14 at § 58; § 62-63; § 66; § 152; and § 183.

39 Id. at § 37.

40 Id. at § 107-135.

41 Id. at § 134(4).

42 Id. at § 2.

43 Id. at § 79(3).

44 Land Registration Act (2012)(Kenya) at § 3.

45 Id. at § 91(8); § 92.

46 Id. at § 93(1).

47 Id. at § 93(2).

48 Id. at § 93(3).

49 Const., supra note 1, at art. 67.

50 National Land Commission Act (2012)(Kenya) at § 18(6).

51 Id. at § 1(d, g); § 12.

52 Const., supra note 1, at art. 162 (2)(b)

53 Const., supra note 1, at art. 40 and Land Act, supra note 14, at § 111.

54 Land Act, supra note 14, at § 107(7).

55 Although as stated above, the National Land Policy distinguishes between the inheritance rights of married and unmarried daughters.

56 The Matrimonial Property Act (2013)(Kenya) § 4.

57 Const., supra note 1, at art. 45(3).

58 Law of Succession Act (1981)(Kenya).

59 Land Registration Act (2012)(Kenya) at § 91(8).

60 Id. at § 60; at § 91(4).

61 Land Act, supra note 14, at § 49.

62 Land Registration Act, supra note 44, at § 60.

63 Idat § 93(1)(a).

64 The Matrimonial Property Act supra note 56, at § 6(3).

65 Id. at § 6(1).

66 Id. at § 6; § 7.

67 Id. at § 2.

68 Id. at § 14(b).

69 Id. at § 14(a).

70 Law of Succession Act supra note 58, at § 8.

71 Women's Land, supra note 7.

72 The Matrimonial Property Act supra note 56.

73 Id. at § 7.

74 Marriage Act (2014) (Kenya).

75 Marriage Act, supra note 74 at Cap 150; African Christian Marriage and Divorce Act at Cap 151; Matrimonial Causes Act at Cap 152; Subordinate Court (Separation and Maintenance) Act at Cap 153; Marriage and Divorce Registration Act at Cap 155, Mohammedan Marriage Divorce and Succession Act at Cap 156; and Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act at Cap 157.

76 Marriage Act supra note 74 at § 2.

77 Id. at § 4.

78 Id. at § 11(e); § 11(f).

79 Id. at §3(3).

80 Id. at § 3(1).

81 Id. at § 6(2).

82 Id. at § 25.

83 Idat § 35.

84 Section 66(6) of the Marriage Act, supra note 74, provides a list of conditions under which a marriage may be considered irretrievably broken down.

85 UN Habitat, Rights and Realities: Are Women’s Equal Rights to Land, Housing and Property Implemented in East Africa? (2002) [hereinafter Rights and Realities]. See section III for a detailed discussion of customary practices.

86 Marriage Act, supra note 74 at §6(3)

87 Idat § 2, “polygamy.”

88 Idat § 8.

89 Idat § 44-45.

90 Id. at §43(1).

91 Idat § 43(2).

92 Idat § 55(1).

93 Idat § 96(2-3).

94 Idat § 8.

95 Section 66(6) of the Marriage Act, supra note 74, provides a list of conditions under which a marriage may be considered irretrievably broken down.

96 Idat § 69(1).

97 Idat § 17.

98 Id. at § 6(2).

99 Id. at § 19; §25-26.

100 Id. at § 18; § 21.

101 Id. at § 65.

102 Id. at §46.

103 Id. at § 2.

104 Id. at § 6(2).

105 Id. at § 47(1).

106 Id. at § 96(2).

107 Id. at § 70.

108 Id. at § 48.

109 Marriage Act, supra note 74 at § 49; § 57.

110 Id. at § 96(2).

111 Matrimonial Property Act, supra note 56 at § 3.

112 Marriage Act, supra note 74, at sec 49(3).

113 Law of Succession Act (2010)(Kenya) § 2(3).

114 Id. at § 48(2).

115 Law of Succession Act, supra note 58.

116 Idat § 32.

117 Idat § 33.

118 Idat § 29.

119 Idat § 29.

120 Idat § 35(1).

121 Idat § 35(1)(b).

122 Idat § 35(5).

123 Idat § 37.

124 Idat § 36(1).

125 Idat § 37.

126 Idat § 38.

127 Idat § 41.

128 Marriage Act, supra note 74, at §11(1(a)).

129 Id. at § 40.

130 Id.

131 Id.

132 Law of Succession Act, supra note 58 at §47; §50.

133 Id. at § 50.

134 Const., supra note 1, at art. 60(1(g))

135 Land Policy, supra note 27, at para. 223; para. 225(h)

136 Const., supra note 1, at art.60(1(f)).

137 Id. at art. 27(8).

138 Id. at art. 63.

139 Id. at art. 2(4).

140 Id. art. 60(1(f)).

141 Women's Land, supra note 7.

142 Id.

143 USAID, Kenya Secure Project: Analysis of Kenya’s Land Act, Land Registration Act, and National Land Commission Act. (2012) [hereinafter Secure Project].

144 Law of Succession Act, supra note 58; Matrimonial Property Act , supra note 56.

145 See Women's Land, supra note 7; C. Harrington and T. Chopra. Arguing Traditions: Denying Kenya’s Women Access to Land Rights, Justice for the Poor Research Report- The World Bank (2010) [hereinafter Denying].

146 C. Harrington. Women’s Access to Land and Property Rights: A Review of Literature, Justice for the Poor/Kenya Report-The World Bank (2008) [hereinafter Women’s Access].

147 Id.

148 Id.

149 USAID Property Rights and Resource Governance Profile: Kenya (2010).

150 National Land Policy, supra note 27, at § 63-64.

151 See Women's Land, supra note 7.

152 P. Kameri-Mbote. The Land Has its Owners! Gender Issues in Land Tenure Under Customary Law, UNDP-International Land Coalition Workshop: Land Rights for African Development: From Knowledge to Action (2005) [hereinafter Owners] ; and see Women's Land, supra note 7 and Women’s Access, supra note 147

153 See Denying, supra note 145.

154 Owners, supra note 152.

155 See Women’s Access, supra note 146.

156 Id.

157 Human Rights Watch. Double Standards: Women’s Property Rights Violations in Kenya (2003) [hereinafter Double Standards].

158 See Women's Land, supra note 7.

159 P. Kameri- Mbote. Women, Land Rights and the Environment: The Kenyan Experience (2006).

160 BBC, Kenyan  bid to ban bride-price payments (9 Nov. 2012)

161 Id.

162 Marriage Act, supra note 74, at §43(2).

163 Id. at §6(3).

164 Muliro Telewa, Kenya’s legal same-sex marriage, BBC (15 Feb. 2012).

165 Id.

166 V. Mucai-Kattambo, et. Al. Law and the Status of Women in Kenya, International Environmental Law Research Centre (1995).

167 Denying, supra note 145.

168 Double Standards, supra note 157.

169 Elin Henrysson & Sandra F. Joireman, on the Edge of the Law: Women's Property Rights and Dispute Resolution in Kisii, Kenya., 43 L. & Soc'y Rev.(2009)

170 Michael Aliber et al., The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Rights – Case Studies from Kenya. (Human Sci. Research Council Publisher 2011)

171 Chronic Poverty Research Centre. Challenges and Opportunities in Inheritance Rights in Kenya. (2011) at 5.

172 See Denying, supra note 145 at 7.

173 National Land Policy, supra note 27, at § 223(e)

174 See Denying, supra note 145 at 7-8.

175 See Double Standards, supra note 157; See Denying, supra note 145.

176 Const., supra note 1, at art. 60(1(g)).

177 Idat art. 60(1(f)).

178 See Denying, supra note 145.

179 Id. at 15.

180 Id.

181 Id.

182 Id.

183 Id.

184 Id. at 16.