VI. Endnotes & Citations

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Endnotes & Citations


2  States employ different mechanisms to comply with their international obligations. Some States, mostly civil law countries, provide for direct application of treaties in their domestic law upon acceptance or ratification of the treaty but others, mostly common law countries, required legislative incorporation of the treaty provisions in domestic law in order to be enforced by domestic institutions. There are exceptions to these general rules, of course: binding international law norms recognized as jus cogens may be applied by a domestic court even if not domestically incorporated in the law.

3  The CEDAW Committee and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights set up by the Banjul Charter are good examples. For more, see the sections below.

4  Later, women’s rights were addressed at a UN conference on human rights in Vienna in 1993 and the UN’s World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995, which called for women's equal participation in a wide range of areas including political life.

5  "Take all appropriate measures ... to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women." Article 2(f)

6  For a more complete guide on how to submit reports to CEDAW and initiate a Complaint refer to the Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

7  For international mechanisms, good information is available here: